Samuel and Eleanor (“Ellen”) Alexander Rankin: a Few Corrections to the Record

Here we are, tilting at windmills again, just for the fun of it. The idea is to correct some frequent errors about Samuel and Eleanor Alexander Rankin, who appeared in the records of Rowan, Tryon, Mecklenburg, and Lincoln Counties. A cousin has asked why I write these “correction” articles. That’s an easy one. Thanks to the the ease of “copy and paste” and importing other peoples’ family trees in a few clicks, online genealogy errors have multiplied exponentially, like the Tribbles in the original Star Trek. Anything that has appeared in print is taken as gospel. While it is a truism that every family history contains errors, I assume that most people prefer to eliminate them when possible. Thus, cousin, I’m providing a Tribble extermination service here, even though some of these errors are minor. <grin>

So let’s turn again to Samuel and his wife Eleanor. Two previous articles on this website dealt with erroneous theories about Samuel’s parents. The first article dealt with the persistent notion that he was a son of Joseph Rankin of New Castle County, Delaware. The second article addresses speculation that Samuel was a son of Robert and Rebecca Rankin of Guilford County, North Carolina. Y-DNA testing has conclusively disproved both possibilities. So far as I have found, there is no evidence on this side of the Atlantic as to the identity of Samuel’s parents.

And now, on to new territory. Here are the positions I’m taking with regard to some of the conventional wisdom on Samuel and Eleanor:

  • Samuel was probably born in 1734 (not 1732) and he probably died in 1816 (not 1814).
  • There is no reason to believe that Samuel was born in New Castle County, Delaware. There is no evidence where he was born, so far as I know.
  • He and Eleanor married in Rowan County, North Carolina, and not in Pennsylvania.
  • Samuel had arrived in North Carolina by no later than April 1760.
  • His wife’s given name was Eleanor. “Ellen,” the name on her tombstone, was a nickname.
  • Eleanor was born in 1740, not 1743.
  • Eleanor’s father was not the David Alexander who sold Samuel a 320-acre tract on James Cathey’s Mill Creek aka Kerr Creek. David was her brother. Her parents were James and Ann Alexander.

Let’s start at the top.

What were Samuel’s dates of birth and death?

Samuel’s birth: many Rankin researchers, including a “findagrave” website for the Goshen Presbyterian Cemetery in Belmont where Samuel was buried, say that he was born in 1732.[1] His tombstone has disappeared, or at least my husband and I couldn’t find it when we visited the cemetery in August 2001. I haven’t seen any evidence that he was born in 1732, although that doesn’t mean there isn’t any. So far as I have found, the only evidence of his birth date is on a film titled “Pre-1914 Cemetery Inscription Survey, Gaston Co., prepared by the Historical Records Survey Service Division, Works Progress Administration.”[2] That survey, taken during the Great Depression when the tombstone was obviously still extant, says that Samuel Rankin was born in 1734. Of course, even in the 1930s, the stone was already more than a century old and could easily have been misread. Or Samuel’s children might not have known his actual date of birth – and Samuel wasn’t around to correct them. However, the WPA survey is apparently the only available evidence.

Samuel’s death: findagrave and many online family trees give Samuel’s date of death as December 16, 1814. That is the date that Samuel executed his will, and the probability that he died on the same day is slim to none.[3] In fact, the actual probability is zero, because he appeared in the Lincoln County records in 1816. On July 26 of that year, he conveyed to his son James a tract on Stanleys Creek adjacent James’ brothers William and Alexander (and Thomas Rhyne, see my article about Samuel’s grandson Sam, son of Richard).[4] That is the last entry I found for Samuel in the Lincoln records until his will was proved in 1826.[5] The WPA cemetery survey says Samuel died in 1816.

Where was Samuel born?

Many Rankin researchers claim Samuel was born in New Castle County, Delaware. That is probably a holdover from when many believed he was a son of Joseph Rankin of New Castle. Since that has been disproved, there is no logic for placing Samuel’s birth where Joseph lived. In fact, I found no evidence of a Rankin named Samuel in New Castle County in the relevant time frame, although there are many records concerning Joseph’s proved sons (Thomas, Joseph Jr., John and William) and possible sons (Robert and James). There seems to be no evidence for any place of birth for Samuel, or even any evidence that he was born in the colonies rather than on the other side of the Atlantic.

Where did Samuel and Eleanor marry, and who were her parents?

The couple undoubtedly married in North Carolina, not Pennsylvania, despite the view of Minnie Puett, who wrote a history of Gaston County. Eleanor’s family – her parents James (not David) and Ann and her brothers William, James, John, David and Robert – were in that part of Anson County that became Rowan by at least March 1752, when there was a Granville grant to James Alexander “of Anson Co., Gent.”[6] Eleanor Alexander was the grantee in a gift deed of livestock from her father James on January 12, 1753, when she was not quite thirteen. Before they came to North Carolina, the Alexander family was in Amelia County, Virginia. Here is an article about Eleanor’s family.

 When did Samuel come to North Carolina, and from where?

It is possible that Samuel came to North Carolina from Pennsylvania, as many Rankin researchers think. So did many other Scots-Irish settlers of the Piedmont Plateau. If you had to guess, you would probably say that Samuel came to NC from either Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, or Virginia. The only evidence I have found for a man who might be the same man as Samuel Rankin prior to his arrival in NC is in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Some Samuel Rankin is listed as a freeman (i.e., age 21 or over and single) on the 1753 tax list for Sadsbury Township of Chester County.[7] There are no other Rankins on that list, although there are a number of other Scots-Irish whose names will be familiar to Lincoln/Rowan County researchers. There were several Moores, Beatys and Campbells, as well as a McCleary, Erwin and Kerr. The Samuel Rankin taxed as a freeman in 1753 was born by at least 1732, which might be why some researchers have deduced that date for his birth.

Wherever he came from, the evidence establishes that Samuel was in North Carolina earlier than some researchers believe, including Minnie Puett. His first land acquisition was a purchase from David Alexander in a deed dated July 14, 1760.[8] The tract was on James Cathey’s Mill Creek (also known as Kerr Creek), and not on Kuykendahl/Dutchman’s Creek, where the family eventually settled. The Revolutionary War Pension application of Samuel’s son William says that William was born in January 1761 in Rowan County, which puts Samuel in NC no later than April 1760.[9] Assuming he took more than a few months to court Eleanor and that William was their eldest child, one would conclude Samuel was in NC by no later than 1759.

Samuel’s wife was named Eleanor and she was born in 1740, not 1743

Her Goshen Presbyterian Cemetery tombstone, which was still intact (although barely legible) when we visited in 2001, calls her “Ellen.” So did the Rev. Samuel Meek Rankin in his book about the Rankin and Wharton families, probably based on that tombstone.[10] Her family and friends undoubtedly called her Ellen. Almost all Rankin researchers do the same, and I have been corrected more than once for calling her Eleanor. Nevertheless, I persist. <grin> The records establish that her given name was Eleanor. Period. Her father called her “Elener” [sic] in a gift deed.[11] A Rowan County court called her “Elinor.”[12] At least three deeds (one with her signature as “Elender”) do the same.[13] She and Samuel had a daughter and at least five granddaughters, all named Eleanor rather than Ellen.[14] Those facts surely establish that her given name was Eleanor, or I will eat my hat. If I owned one. Her nickname was Ellen.

Eleanor was almost certainly born in 1740, not 1743. The Rowan County court allowed her to choose her own guardian in 1755.[15] Doing so required her to be at least fourteen, so she must have been born by at least 1741. Two tombstone surveys say the date of birth on her tombstone was 16 April 1740.[16] The date is now so eroded, however, that it could reasonably be read as 1743 – although that date is foreclosed by the court record.

… and that’s it for now. I’m not done with this family, though: there is more to come.

[1] The findagrave website contains several errors about Samuel and Eleanor, mostly minor, some not so minor.

[2] Family History Library Microfilm No. 0,882,938, item 2.

[3] North Carolina State Archives, File Box C.R.060.801.21, will of Samuel Rankin of Lincoln County dated 16 Dec 1814, proved April 1826. Recorded in Lincoln County Will Book 1: 37.

[4] Lincoln County Deed Book 27: 561, conveyance from Samuel Rankin to James Rankin witnessed by William Rankin and Benjamin Hartgrove. The grantor is not Sam Jr., who owned land in Mecklenburg, not Lincoln and had already sold his Mecklenburg tracts before 1816.

[5] There was no hurry to probate Samuel’s will because he left each of his surviving children $1, except for James, to whom he left the rest of his estate. With nobody anxious for their payout, there was no reason to rush to the courthouse.

[6] Rowan County Deed Book 3: 547, Granville grant of 25 Mar 1752 to James Alexander, 640 acres in Anson adjacent Andrew Kerr. James gifted half of that tract to his son David Alexander, and David sold it to Samuel Rankin in 1760. See Anson County Deed Book B: 314 et seq. for charming gift deeds of land and livestock from James Alexander and his wife Ann to five of their six children, including Eleanor.

[7] J. Smith Futhey and Gilbert Cope, History of Chester County, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1881), reproduction facsimile by Chester County Historical Society (Mt. Vernon, IN: Windmill Publications, Inc. 1996).

[8] Rowan County Deed Book 5: 272, deed dated 14 Jul 1760 from David Alexander to Samuel Rankin, 320 acres both sides of James Cathey’s Mill Cr. (AKA Kerr’s Cr.).

[9] Virgil D. White, Genealogical Abstracts of Revolutionary War Pension Files, Volume III: N-Z (Waynesboro, TN: The National Historical Publishing Co., 1992).

[10] Rev. S. M. Rankin, The Rankin and Wharton Families and Their Genealogy (Greensboro, NC: J. J. Stone & Co, 1931).

[11] Personal copy of Rowan County Deed Book B: 315 (obtained by mail from the clerk of court), gift deed from James Alexander to his daughter Elener.

[12] Jo White Linn, Abstracts of the Minutes of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, Rowan County, North Carolina, 1753-1762 (Salisbury, NC: 1977), abstract of Order Book 2: 90, entry of 22 Oct 1755, David and Elinor Alexander (spelling per abstractor) came into court and chose their mother Ann Alexander as their guardian.

[13] Jo White Linn, Rowan County North Carolina Deed Abstracts Vol. II. 1762 – 1772 Abstracts of Books 5, 6, 7 (Salisbury, NC: 1972), abstract of Deed Book 6: 225, deed dated 31 Aug 1765 from Samuel Rankin and wife Eleanor (spelling per the abstractor) to John McNeeley, 320 acres on James Cathey’s Mill Creek; original of Lincoln Co. Deed Book 1: 703 (viewed by me at the courthouse), deed of 26 Jan 1773 from Samuel Rankin of Tryon to Philip Alston, 150 acres on Kuykendall Creek signed by Samuel Rankin and Elender Rankin.

[14] At least five of Samuel and Eleanor Rankin’s children named a daughter “Eleanor” (not “Ellen”), including Samuel Rankin Jr., Jean Rankin Hartgrove, Robert Rankin, David Rankin, and Eleanor (“Nellie”) Rankin Dickson. See, e.g., an image of the tombstone of Eleanor, wife of Joseph Dickson, Ellis Cemetery, Shelby Co., Ill., died 4 Apr 1848, age 62, at

[15] Linn, Abstracts of the Minutes, abstract of Order Book 2: 90, 22 Oct 1755, David and Elinor Alexander came into court and chose their mother Ann Alexander as their guardian; the court appointed Ann guardian for Robert, about age 12, son of James Alexander, dec’d.

[16] Family History Library Microfilm No. 0,882,938, item 2. See also Microfilm at Clayton Genealogical library titled “North Carolina Tombstone Records, Vols. 1, 2 and 3,” compiled by the Alexander Martin and J. S. Wellborn chapters of the DAR; transcribed lists were filmed 1935 by the Genealogical Society of Utah. Tombstone of Ellen Rankin, b. 16 April 1740, d. 26 Jan 1802.

Samuel Rankin, b. abt. 1734, d. abt. 1816, Lincoln Co., NC, married Eleanor (nickname “Ellen”) Alexander: Who Was His Father? Part I.

This is the first of two articles concerning the family of origin of Samuel Rankin of Rowan, Mecklenburg and Lincoln Counties, North Carolina (call him “Sam Sr.”). He lived in North Carolina from roughly the mid-1750s until he died in about 1816. Rankin family history researchers have at least two theories about the identity of Sam Sr.’s father:

  • Theory #1 — Sam Sr.’s father was Joseph Rankin of White Clay Creek Hundred, New Castle County, Delaware (1704-1764). The identity of Joseph’s wife is unknown.[1] Let’s call him “Joseph of Delaware.”
  • Theory #2 — Sam Sr.’s parents were Robert and Rebecca Rankin of Guilford County, NC. Call them “R&R.” Before migrating to North Carolina in the mid-1750s, Robert appeared on the 1753 tax list for West Nottingham Township, Chester County, PA.

This article addresses the first theory, i.e., that Sam Sr. was a son of Joseph of Delaware. The article has three sections. First, we start with the probable origin of that theory, a book published in 1931 by Rev. S. M. Rankin about Rankin genealogy. Then we look at the evidence in the county and other records concerning Sam Sr. and the family of Joseph of Delaware. We conclude with the Y-DNA evidence about the descendants of Sam Sr. and Joseph of Delaware.

To take the mystery out early, Joseph of Delaware was not the father of Sam Rankin Sr. Although Rev. Rankin appears to have been a meticulous researcher, his notion that Joseph of Delaware was Sam Sr.’s father is speculative. There is no evidence whatsoever in the county, church or other records to support a close family connection between Joseph of Delaware and Sam Sr. As we might suspect, the Y-DNA of two proved descendants of Joseph of Delaware is not a match – not even remotely close – to a proved descendant of Sam Sr.

The origin of the theory that Joseph of Delaware was Sam Sr.’s father

There are a nunber of family trees on, in compiled (paper) genealogies, and elsewhere on the web in which a researcher has identified Joseph of Delaware as the father of Sam Sr. So far as I have found, the first instance of that theory is in the Rev. S. M. Rankin’s 1931 book, The Rankin and Wharton Families and Their Genealogy.[2]

Here is what Rev. Rankin has to same about the family of Joseph of Delaware, with some material that I have italicized for emphasis:

“The children of Joseph Rankin were James, John, Robert, Thomas, William, Joseph and Anne and perhaps Samuel. We are sure about all of these except James, Robert and Samuel

[i]t is thought that Samuel was also a son of Joseph Rankin, Sr. The dates fit in. John [one of Joseph’s proved sons] was born in 1736, Samuel in 1740 and William [another proved son of Joseph] in 1744. The family names also indicate that Samuel was a brother of John and William … both John and Samuel had a child named Samuel, and both William and Samuel had a child named William. Furthermore the personal appearance and personal traits of characters of the descendants of these three men indicate that they were brothers. Professor Jesse Rankin Wharton, who was in college with some of the descendants of Samuel Rankin, and who prepared a partial genealogial tree of the descendants of John and William Rankin, gave it as his fixed judgment that Samuel was a brother of John and William. The fact that no record of Samuel was found in New Castle County, Delaware, does not prove that he was not a son of Joseph. Only one record, and that in a deed, was found to prove that John and William were sons of Joseph.”

Rev. Rankin essentially makes four arguments: (1) Sam Sr. was the right age to have been a son of Joseph of Delaware; (2) there are similar names in Sam Sr.’s family and the families of two proved sons of Joseph of Delaware, John and William Rankin of Guilford County, NC; (3) someone who went to college with descendants of Sam Sr. firmly opined that they were related to John and William; and (4) simply because there is no proof in the records doesn’t mean it isn’t true.

I choose to ignore the “personal appearance and personal traits of character” argument Rev. Rankin makes. The Scots-Irish were always described by other Scots-Irish as hard-working and upright Presbyterians, and never as the hard-drinking and occasionally rowdy characters their English and German neighbors occasionally accused them of being.

In the same vein as that silly argument, my husband once found a picture of a man named Rufus Grady Rankin in the genealogical section of the Charlotte, NC library. Gary was struck by how much he resembled my father, Jim Leigh Rankin. Grady Rankin is a conclusively proved descendant of Sam Sr. and Eleanor. I subsequently exchanged emails with a charming grandson of Grady’s, who told me that a receding hairline leaving behind a “topknot” was a characteristic of Rankin males in his family. My father definitely had one of those topknots. Unfortunately, I doubt that any serious genealogist would accept that physical trait as evidence that my father was a descendant of Sam Sr. and Eleanor (although that is actually the case). I still have that picture of Rufus Grady Rankin, but the copy is too poor to scan and include in this post. If it were any good, I would paste it in here along with a picture of my father. What the heck: here is my sweet father about 1952, with the incipient topknot and kind smile that he shared with Grady.

JLR abt 1952 favorite

And here is the topknot in full flower in 1960.

Jim Rankin abt 1960

Back to Rev. Rankin’s logic. Argument number one – that Sam Sr. was the right age to have been a son of Joseph of Delaware – is unpersuasive. First, Sam Sr.’s birth year is a matter of controversy. Various family history researchers give his birth year as 1732, 1736, or 1740, all without citing a source. The most credible evidence I have seen for Sam Sr.’s birth year is a DAR compilation of North Carolina tombstone records that was filmed in 1935 by the Genealogical Society of Utah. That compilation indicates that Sam Sr. was born in 1734, a date that doesn’t seem to have much of a following on the web.[3]

Whichever date is correct – and I’m voting for 1734 – Sam Sr. was probably born sometime during the 1730s. That would be consistent with the birth of his eldest son, William Rankin, in 1761.[4] However, if being born in the 1730s is evidence re: Sam Sr.’s father, then we should consider not only Joseph Rankin of Delaware, but also Robert and Rebecca Rankin of Guilford County, NC … and most male Rankins of a certain age (say, between 20 and 70) living in Ireland or Scotland during the 1730s.[5]

The second argument — “similar names” in the family — is even more flimsy. How many Scots-Irish families used, ad nauseam, the names William, James, John, Samuel, Richard, or Robert? Some names are good evidence of a family relationship, such as Esom Graves and Esom Logan Burke. Or Parasida Burke, another name found among my Burke relatives. John and William, et al., aren’t much good as evidence of a genealogical relationship.

Third, the “fixed opinion” of Professor Wharton, who went to college with descendants of Sam Sr. and prepared a genealogy of John and William, is nice. Throw his vote in the pot with all the other family researchers’ opinions, but let’s not give it too much more weight than yours or mine.

As to Rev. Rankin’s last argument, the one I highlighted in italics. It is the most fun. Rev. Rankin says, in essense, that the fact there is no proof in the records doesn’t disprove the hypothesis that Sam Sr. was a son of Joseph of Delaware. True. Just because I have never seen a ghost doesn’t mean that ghosts don’t exist.

What Rev. Rankin says has some depressing truth, though: sometimes there just isn’t any evidence in the records. When there is no such proof, we deem the theory speculative. Period. As much as I admire Rev. Rankin’s research on the descendants of John and William Rankin, he deserves a C- on his theory about Sam Sr. as a son of Joseph of Delaware. Further, there is more than one deed to prove that John and William were sons of Joseph, and the recitations of names, relationships and locations in those deeds provide conclusive proof that William Rankin and John Rankin of Guilford County, NC were sons of Joseph of Delaware.[6]

I hope that, if nothing else, this highlights the fact that even careful and conscientious researchers like Rev. Rankin make mistakes. We all do, of course. In his defense, I note that Rev. Rankin carefully qualified his opinion of Sam Sr. and Joseph with this phrase in the passive voice: “it is thought that Samuel was also a son of Joseph.” That doesn’t say that was what Rev. Rankin thought. It just means somebody thought that, and that person (reading between the lines) was Prof. Jesse Rankin Wharton. Rev. Rankin also admits that “we” aren’t sure that Samuel is a son of Joseph. He thus expressly admits that he isn’t sure.

The evidence in the New Castle County, Delaware records about Sam Sr.

Rev. Rankin already said it all: there is none. Nada. Zilch. Zero. He claims that doesn’t disprove anything, but … hey … you can’t prove anything with no evidence, either. Every attorney in the world knows which side of that argument she or he wants to be on.

There are actually a fair number of records in New Castle County regarding the family of Joseph of Delaware, including deed, probate, church, tax, and military records. I will save all that information for another article, because it is fairly extensive. Suffice it to say that four sons of Joseph of Delaware are conclusively proved by New Castle County deed and probate records and two more sons are proved by good circumstantial evidence, including tax and military records.[7] Admittedly, the New Castle records are not complete – for example, Joseph of Delaware clearly left a 1764 will (at least two deeds recite that fact) – but there is no extant record of such a will that I can find. However, the county records aren’t exactly spotty, either. William Tecumseh Sherman didn’t burn down that courthouse.

The bottom line is there is no evidence in the New Castle County records so far as the eye can see – not even circumstantial – which suggests that Sam Sr. was a son of Joseph of Delaware. If you had to prove that Joseph of Delaware was the father of Sam Sr. to a jury, they would look you squarely in the eye and vote unanimously against you. Jury deliberation would take fifteen minutes, max.

The Y-DNA evidence

There is a Rankin DNA Project which provides (anonymously, if desired) Y-DNA results online.[8] One member who has taken a Y-DNA test has a solid paper genealogical trail showing him to be a descendant of Joseph of Delaware. His name is Doug Rankin. I found another proved descendant of Joseph of Delaware by conventional paper research (let’s call him “Mr. X”), and Doug convinced Mr. X to test. Turns out that Mr. X and Doug are 37-marker matches with one mismatching marker, which genetic genealogists call a “37-marker match with a genetic distance of one” (or “GD=1”). That is a darn good match. With two closely matching Y-DNA samples and two solid paper trails, there is a high degree of confidence that Doug and Mr. X provide a good picture of the Y-DNA of descendants of Joseph of Delaware – as well as those who aren’t his descendants.

There is more, of course. The Rankin DNA project has two members (call them Mr. A and Mr. B) whose paper trail proves them to be descendants of Samuel and Eleanor Alexander Rankin. Neither of them is a match – not even remotely close – to Doug Rankin and Mr. X. Based on the tests from Mr. A, Mr. B, Mr. X. and Doug Rankin, the Y-DNA evidence proves conclusively that Sam Sr. is definitely not a son of Joseph of Delaware.

The Y-DNA evidence thus confirms what the paper trail establishes: there is neither a genetic link nor a link in the records from Sam Sr. to Joseph of Delaware.

* * * * * * * * * *

[1] There is speculation about the identity of the wife of Joseph of Delaware, although there is no evidence whatsoever to support it.

[2] Rev. S. M. Rankin, The Rankin and Wharton Families and Their Genealogy (Greensboro, NC: J. J. Stone & Co., printers and binders, 1931, reprint by Higginson Book Co., Salem, MA).

[3] Microfilm at the Clayton Genealogical Library, Houston, TX, titled “North Carolina Tombstone Records, Vols. 1, 2 and 3,” compiled by the Alexander Martin and J. S. Wellborn chapters of the DAR; transcribed lists filmed 1935 by the Genealogical Society of Utah.

[4] Virgil D. White, Genealogical Abstracts of Revolutionary War Pension Files, Volume III: N-Z (Waynesboro, TN: The National Historical Publishing Co., 1992). William Rankin’s pension application states that he was born in January 1761 in Rowan County, NC.

[5] Robert Rankin (wife Rebecca) of Guilford County, NC. died by 1773; he had grandsons born in 1757 and 1759, so he was clearly old enough to have a son born in the 1730s.

[6] FHL Microfilm 6564, New Castle County Deed Book Y1: 499 and 565.

[7] Insert New Castle County deed, probate, military and tax records here. Alternatively, save them for a separate article about the family of Joseph of Delaware. <grin> If anyone reads this footnote, please let me know in a comment and I will promptly provide citations!!!!!

[8] This website has links to Y-DNA results (incomprehensible if you aren’t both a Rankin and Y-DNA expert) and to a “patriarch page” with lots of Rankin descendancy charts. For the most part, all participants provide their own ancestry and get to say from whom they are descended. When two different people whose Y-DNA does NOT match claim descent from the same Rankin ancestor, the editors of the patriarch chart intervene to either make corrections or at least file disclaimers. If you have questions about that website, please let me know.